From Taylor to neoliberal management, employers have experienced a variety of worker participation forms. Four main patterns, successively industrial, managerial, democratic, and financial, can be distinguished. Each approach expresses a peculiar view of work and worker participation. The genealogy of employers’ participation injunction shows how the commodification and subordination of work never eradicate an irreducible part of autonomy that employees keep altogether for the needs of production and as part of workers’ demands.
- worker participation